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What is Gum Cancer? What Are The Causes and Symptoms?

By 1 August 2023Dental Health3 min read

Gum cancer, also known as oral cancer or oral cavity cancer, is a type of cancer that can develop in the tissues of the gums (gingiva) or other parts of the mouth, including the tongue, lips, inner cheeks, roof, or floor of the mouth. Like other types of cancer, gum cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the oral cavity.

Causes of Gum Cancer: The exact cause of gum cancer is not always clear, but several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing this condition. Some common risk factors include:

  1. Tobacco Use: Smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, and using smokeless tobacco products like chewing tobacco or snuff significantly increases the risk of gum cancer.
  2. Alcohol Consumption: Regular and excessive alcohol consumption is another significant risk factor for developing oral cancer, including gum cancer. The combination of tobacco and alcohol use can further increase the risk.
  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Certain strains of HPV, particularly HPV16, have been linked to an increased risk of oral cancers, including gum cancer.
  4. Age: The risk of gum cancer increases with age, with most cases diagnosed in individuals over the age of 40.
  5. Sun Exposure: Prolonged and unprotected exposure to the sun can increase the risk of lip cancer.
  6. Poor Oral Hygiene: Neglecting oral hygiene can lead to chronic irritation and inflammation of the gums, potentially increasing the risk of gum cancer.

Symptoms of Gum Cancer: The early stages of gum cancer may not cause noticeable symptoms, which is why regular dental check-ups are essential for early detection. As the cancer progresses, the following symptoms may manifest:

  1. Persistent Sore or Ulcer: A sore or ulcer that does not heal within two weeks is a common early sign of gum cancer.
  2. Red or White Patches: The presence of red or white patches on the gums or other oral tissues could indicate abnormal cell growth.
  3. Swelling or Lump: Unexplained swelling, thickening, or a lump in the gums or other parts of the mouth may be a sign of gum cancer.
  4. Persistent Pain: Continuous pain or discomfort in the mouth, tongue, or throat can be a symptom of oral cancer, including gum cancer.
  5. Difficulty Swallowing or Speaking: As the cancer progresses, it may interfere with normal swallowing and speaking.
  6. Loose Teeth: Gum cancer can lead to loosening of teeth or a change in how the teeth fit together.
  7. Changes in Denture Fit: Dentures that suddenly do not fit well or cause irritation may be a sign of gum cancer.

It is important to remember that these symptoms can be caused by various conditions, and having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have gum cancer. However, if you notice any persistent changes or symptoms in your mouth, especially if you have risk factors for oral cancer, it is crucial to seek prompt evaluation by a dentist or medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Early detection can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment and recovery.

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